March 22, 2018

City Creatures edited by Gavin Van Horn and Dave Aftandilian

I am drawn to stories that expand and deepen my knowledge about urban wildlife. CITY CREATURES edited by Gavin Van Horn and Dave Aftandilian does this well. The hefty edition of essays, poetry, paintings, and photographs illuminate the range of animals living in cities and our multiple relationships with them. I am happy to present a book review.

Image: City Creature book cover via University of Chicago Press

Gavin Van Horn and Dave Aftandilian are natural fits for a book of this ilk. Van Horn is director of Cultures of Conservation for the Center for Humans and Nature and is writer and editor of the center's blog, City Creatures. He's the co-editor (with John Hausdoerffer) of Wildness: Relations of People and Place (2017) and the forthcoming The Channel Coyotes: Otherworlds of the Urban Wild. Aftandilian is associate professor of anthropology and director of the Human-Animal Relationships (HARE) minor at Texas Christian University. He's the editor of What Are Animals to Us? Approaches from Science, Religion, Folklore, Literature, and Art.

The subtitle of CITY CREATURES is "Animal Encounters in the Chicago Wilderness." The latter part of the subtitle refers to the Chicago Wilderness coalition formed in 1996 to do regional-scale conservation and restoration work. The perhaps purposeful use of the word "wilderness" forces one to discard notions of the city as a place antithetical to wilderness. With this book, Van Horn and Aftilidian argue that the city-region is "a hot spot for biodiversity," not a "biological desert."

The animals that are storied in this book are not all traditionally wilderness species nor are typically wild creatures found in their natural habitats. The first story of the book is about chickens which seems the most domestic of animals without being a pet. But essential to CITY CREATURES is all the ways in which humans and non-human animals are in relation with each other. Other stories in the 'Backyard Diversity' section deal with squirrel, opossum, raccoon, hawk, scarab, and wasp. The next section, 'Neighborhood Associations', also features animals of daily encounters though the spaces we tend to encounter them are a bit beyond our domestic/home realm. Still squirrel but also coyote, bee, cricket, pigeon, feral cat.

The third section, 'Animals on Display," is a striking shift from the creatures considered in the first two section. The spaces of animal encounters are zoos, aquariums, and museums. The animals are live and dead. I have an uneasy relationship with zoos and aquariums. I visit them and have taken my children to them, but I'm never sure if I should. Museums on the other seem more comfortable territory, though the provenance of the collections aren't without their controversies. I particularly enjoyed the stories about museum specimen collections because I am learning to prepare museum quality bird study skins for a teaching collection. Rebecca Beachy's "A Living Taxidermy" documents the process of creating a study skin from a salvaged Ringneck Pheasant. The preceding story, "Nature on Pause" by Peggy Macnamara, is illustrated with the author's beautiful paintings of bird mounts, study skins, nests and eggs as well as pinned butterflies and frogs preserved in jars housed at the Field Museum.

The fourth section represents another dramatic transition. The stories shift from corralled spaces to the more open spaces of parks, forests, and "natural areas." Soil as an expansive space is also featured in photographs of Sharon Bladholm's casts of insects. Andrew S. Yang's "Letting the City Bug You" is a phenomenal exploration of collecting insects, as an adult, in the city.
An interest in insects seems like an odd mix of the quaint, the trivial, the gross, and certainly the pay attention to insects seems like the symptom of an unfettered curiosity that is acceptable in a kid but seems awkwardly deviant in an adult.
And yet as singular or even unsocial as seeking insects might seem at first, I have found that its public nature can lead to unexpected connection. Mobile and spontaneous, new social spaces have opened in surprising ways....Passersby look twice,smilesquint, and just as often stop and ask what we were doing. They want to look at what we are looking at, and consequently they see something they wouldn't otherwise find.
Many of the urban natural history books I've read focus on terrestrial animals, often vertebrates. CITY CREATURES gives significant page time to non-vertebrates and to aquatic animals. The habitat types in 'Water World's range from lake to river, from creek to pond. Possibly my favorite story in this fifth section of the book is "Canoeing through History: Wild Encounters on Bubbly Creek" by Michael A. Bryson, though many more birds than fish are mentioned in the story. I like this story for a few reasons. I enjoy visual elements in stories and the author's map drawing of the creek and its environs is a figure in the story. The map is annotated with significant places mentioned in the story. "Canoeing through History" is smoothly narrated with detailed information about what the participants saw in the water and along the creek's banks. The author narrates in the first person but he also uses the collective "we" which I found engaging. Finally, I appreciated the author's consideration of the socio-politcal dynamics that affect nature appreciation and access.

Van Horn and Aftandilian describe the sixth section of the book as coming "full circle" because the stories consider two sets of animals: (1) ones that inhabited the landscape before urbanization, were locally extirpated, and have been reintroduced (bison) or are reclaiming territory (coyote) and (2) ones that have become naturalized (monk parakeet) or are feral populations of formally kept species (pigeons). Dave Aftandilian's story and illustration of an inhabited monk parakeets' nest is not to be missed. This section, and the book, ends with a painting titled Indiana Dunes by African American painter, Blake Lenoir. You can find images of some of Lenoir's paintings here. The verdancy and faunal diversity, with a deep blue thread of water, depicted in the painting speaks a thousand words about the pre-colonial landscape of Illinois.

There really is so much to recommend about CITY CREATURES  In additional to its astounding central content, a rich resource list is provided at the end of each story and at the conclusion of the book. The mix of story, poetry, and art is unique to this book, I think. And well executed. An artwork or artworks preceding or following a poem or story is either about the topic of the writing or related thematically. A couple of my favorite groupings are:

  • "Keeping Chickens" by Terra Brockman followed by Colleen Plumb's photograph "Holding Backyard Chicken" and a photograph of Alma Dominguez's exhibit "Consumes mi dolor...mi merge/You consume my death" which features chickens.
  • Between "Canoeing through History" by Michael A. Bryson and "Calumet" by John Rogner is a poem titled "The Fish in the Cage" by Todd Davis sandwiched on each side by two artworks: Riverwalk Gateway, the South Branch of the River and Riverwalk Gateway by Ellen Lanyon as well as Pond Reflection and Flood by Eleanor Spiess-Ferris.

I wish I could collect many of the artwork in the book as postcards or as small canvases to hang in my apartment. The list of favorites is too long to list here. One of the more inspiring ones is Diana Sudyka's illustration titled Birds Spotted While Hiking Wooded Isle, Hyde Park, Illinois. You can view the Hyde Park bird print here.

Although CITY CREATURES is clearly grounded in the Chicago region, the overarching themes of the city as ecologically rich and dynamic space and the multiplicity of relationships between humans and non-human animals are relevant in many, certainly North American, cities. I especially appreciate that the book does not present a dismal ecological outcome. While it does point out the damaging impact that humans have had and continue to have on ecosystems, the first-person narratives in the book clearly illustrate not only the fostering role of humans but also the agency of wild animals in reclaiming and staking out territories in cities.

A complimentary copy of CITY CREATURES was provided by Gavin Van Horn. 

March 19, 2018

Winter Walk-Off 2018 in Washington Square Park

Les Parks of A Tidewater Gardener has been hosting the Winter Walk-Off series since 2011. I participated in New York City in 2011, in London in 2012 (London), and in Arlington (VA) in 2016. This year my walk was completed in New York City.

After a day mostly spent indoors on Sunday, I was itching for a Winter Walk-Off. I headed to my favorite walking place, Washington Square Park. I walked the wildlife transect loop (a project of WSP Eco Projects) looking for birds. In particular, I was hoping to spot the Red-tailed Hawk pair hunting or gathering nesting material. I did see both hawks both on and off the nest, and possibly a third hawk. For cameras I have a smartphone and a compact 90mm/3.8X camera. I only had the former on me. I did not attempt any hawk photographs. It was more fun to watch them with my eyes and through my binoculars.

I was surprised to see a Northern Mockingbird out on a lawn. In my post about mockingbird songs, I mentioned that I typically see this bird in dense vegetation which is unusual for the species. All About Birds describes the Northern Mockingbird as conspicuous.

I kept an eBird checklist during my walk and listed the usual winter birds of Washington Square Park: House Sparrow, White-throated Sparrow, European Starling, American Robin, and pigeon. Another bird surprise was a Turkey Vulture flying low enough over the park to rattle the pigeons.

Trees are another passion of mine, and there are beautiful trees in Washington Square Park. I noticed that red maples and cornelian cherries (really dogwoods) are still blooming. Next to come are the showstopper magnolias, cherries, and crabapples.

I look forward to reading all the Winter Walk-Off posts. You can find them at Winter Walk-Off 2018 on A Tidewater Gardener.

March 15, 2018

Northern Mockingbird Songs

The mockingbird is an exceptional mimic of the vocalization of other birds, but does it have its own song? 

Northern Mockingbird wing flash by Charlesjsharp via Wikimedia Commons

Walking to pick up my older child from school, I typically pass a very small greenspace that's home to peach, pine, and holly trees. The approximate area of the greenspace is 607.55 square feet. The typical birds you'll find in this micro-greenspace are House Sparrows and pigeons. Over the past two weeks, I've noticed a Northern Mockingbird in the holly tree. And yesterday, it was there. I heard it before I saw it. It was singing a chorus of other birds' songs, loudly. I slowly approached the patch and peered into the holly. I observed and listened to the bird for about three minutes. The video recording is below. It was fascinating to hear the diversity of songs and the volume of the singing. The Northern Mockingbird is described as a medium-sized songbird but this one looked rather small tucked into the dense branches of the holly.

When I told my son about the encounter he asked if mockingbirds create original songs or do they only mimic the songs of other birds. I told him I did not know the answer but would research his question. Lucky for me, Bay Nature and All About Birds have written about mockingbird songs. Bay Nature published an article on mockingbird songs. While other songbirds either are born knowing songs or are taught songs by adult birds,* a mockingbird's "repertoire" of songs is learned and memorized from its surroundings, and is not limited to other bird vocalizations. A mockingbird's song repertoire can include non-bird sounds such as car alarms.

A song is a string of phrases in which "each phrase is repeated 2-6 times before shifting to a new sound". Each year, a male mockingbird repeats "35 to 63 percent of his previously heard song types".  In addition it continues to expand its repertoire with new songs. It is estimated that a mockingbird can learn up to 200 songs in its lifetime. For this behavior, mockingbirds are classified as open-ended learners. A song is only one type of bird vocalization or sound. Birds also produce calls. Songs tend to be melodic and long and are typically used for courtship or relationship building while calls are less melodic and shorter and used to defend territory and signal danger.

Here are some additional facts you might like to know about the Northern Mockingbird.
  • Latin name: Mimus polyglottos
  • Habitat: common in urbanized areas and in "brushy fields"
  • Food: omnivorous; forages for fruit (fall and winter) and insects (summer) in shrubby vegetation and on the ground
  • Nest: female chooses among several nests built my male; 2-6 eggs/clutch and 2-3 broods
  • Juvenile: distinguished by spotted breast and absence of dark eyeline
I've read in a few places that the Northern Mockingbird often perches in a highly visible location but this has not been my experience. The mockingbird is one of the winter birds of Washington Square Park, and there I've observed mockingbirds there in densely branched vegetation such as hollies. The mockingbirds I am seeing are behaving more like thrashers (both are in the Mimidae family). In speaking with a more experienced birder, I learned that mockingbirds are more conspicuous during the breeding season. The Northern Mockingbird I am writing about was engaged in singing as we transition to spring. I will assume it's a male advertising its availability. I will look for signs of nest building, and hope it finds a mate and raises offspring nearby.

* Did you know that both male and female mockingbirds sing? Until recently, only male birds were thought to sing, but current research has shown that female songbirds sing, too. However, female birds might limit their singing when on the nest to reduce the risk of predation. I hope to write a follow-up post with links to bird sounds research.

March 8, 2018

Winter Birds of Washington Square Park

It is still winter despite daytime highs in the upper 60s and low 70s in late February. Therefore, it's still appropriate to share the winter bird list of Washington Square Park!

Image: Washington Square Park 

Even in winter, Washington Square Park hosts a striking number of bird species. Fourteen species have been recorded in the park between December 21, 2017 and present based on eBird checklists posted by Washington Square Park Eco Projects (of which I am a member) and by me.

Winter Birds of Washington Square Park
  • Cooper's Hawk
  • Red-tailed Hawk
  • Rock Dove (pigeon)
  • Mourning Dove
  • Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
  • Downy Woodpecker
  • Blue Jay
  • American Robin
  • Northern Mockingbird
  • European Starling
  • White-throated Sparrow
  • House Finch
  • House Sparrow

Image: Pigeons, Washington Square Park 

Rock Dove (pigeon) and House Sparrow are the most common in terms of numbers of individuals. This seems to be consistent across the longitudinal survey project being run by Eco Projects. Learn more about the survey in the Washington Square Park State of Nature Report 2017. European Starling is another populous species. All three of these birds were introduced to North America. Curiously, starling and sparrow populations are declining in Europe.

The native Mourning Dove can be seen most days in the park. Look for flocks near the big-kid playground as well as perched on the windowsills of the 37 Washington Square West (MacDougal Street).

Image: White-throated Sparrow by Cephas via Wikimedia Commons

The White-throated Sparrow is one of my favorite birds. I am smitten by its distinctive markings: black and white striped crown, yellow lores, and white throat. (There is a tan-stripe morph.) This sparrow is sometimes overlooked as observers pass over flocks of seemingly only house sparrows. It's worth pausing and scanning that flock with your binoculars.

I won't let you wait any longer. Whenever I'm in the park with my binoculars, most people ask if I'm looking for the (Red-tailed) Hawks, know about them, or seen them. There is a pair of Red-tailed Hawks that nest on a windowsill of the New York University Bobst Library. Eco Projects and blogger Roger Paw have observed the hawks carrying nest material.

Image: Cooper's Hawk by Rhododendrites via Wikimedia Commons

There's also been a Cooper's Hawk sighted every month this year. The pigeons really scatter when this hawk is in the vicinity.

While you can tell that a hawk is in the area, you'll only happen upon the Northern Mockingbird. It's usually tucked into a holly or other small tree or shrub.

The same can't be said for the vivacious Blue Jay. Listen for its loud calls and look for flashes of blue plumage. They are often the first signal that a hawk is about.

Like the Blue Jay, the Northern Cardinal has striking plumage. The male of the species is a brilliant red. The female has a red bill and some red plumage so she's not hard to spot either. We don't get a lot of cardinals in the park so it's a pleasure to see one.

There are two other species with some significant red plumage - the American Robin and the House Finch. In the fall, robins can be found in great numbers in the crabapple grove located between the toddler playground and the Arch. In winter, I've often observed them in the bigger of NW lawns and in the NW canopy. The hotspots for finches in the smaller of the NW lawns. They are often found in the canopy of the Platanus trees in that area. The adult male has a red crown, face, and upper chest.

Image: Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (male) by Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren via Wikimedia Commons

You will find the smallest of the North American woodpeckers in the park. This winter, a downy has been seen in the SE section of the park.

Of particular interest to me are the sightings of the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. The species is uncommon in its range. In addition to seeing the typical morph, we are also seeing the less common adult black-crowned morph. I am happy that Washington Square Park is a host site for this bird.

I didn't include gulls in the formal count but gull sp. have been observed flying overhead in westward and eastward directions.

Spring will bring the hyper-charismatic neotropical migrants but in the meantime there's plenty of bird life to see in Washington Square Park.

Would you like to see photographs of all the birds of Washington Square Park?
View the WSP Eco Projects guides Winter Birds of Washington Square Park and Birds of Washington Square Park on iNaturalist.

February 26, 2018

Reflections on the Great Backyard Bird Count in Washington Square Park

Image: GBBC Social Media 2018
The Cornell Lab of Ornithology and the National Audubon Society launched the Great Backyard Bird Count (GBBC) in 1998. It was the first web-based citizen science project to collect data on wild birds. The most common type of citizen science project is one designed by institutional scientists and the public participates by collecting and submitting data. This form is known as contributory citizen science. In the case of the GBBC, participants observe birds and record species and number of individuals using the eBird app or website. The minimum observation period is 15 minutes. GBBC lasts for four days; this year the count was held between February 16 and 19.

I regularly participate in a vertebrate wildlife survey in Washington Square Park as part of my work with Washington Square Park Eco Projects. This type of citizen science is the collegial form meaning that there is minimal to no distinction between "the scientist" (the creator/initiator) and "the public" (contributor/data recorder). The bird population data collected by Eco Projects is submitted to eBird linking this collegial citizen science project to a contributory one. Eco Projects has directly participated in contributory citizen science projects such as the 2017 City Nature Challenge. You can see our observations on iNaturalist. We will participate in the 2018 City Nature Challenge. In collaboration with SciStarter we piloted WSP Nature Finds at the 2015 World Science Festival.

One of the founding goals of the organization was to create opportunities for people to engage with the natural resources of the park and we envision greater public participation in at least the bird count portion of the survey. The GBBC counts we hosted are a first step.

On Saturday, February 17 and Sunday, February 18, Eco Projects hosted two bird counts as part of the GBBC. This was the first time I participated in the bird count. Each count lasted approximately 90 minutes and followed the WSP Wildlife Survey transect. Heather Wolf led the Saturday walk while Loyan Beausoleil led the Sunday one. The total number of participants on each day was 12. The number of species we observed on each was coincidentally nine. There was some overlap in the species observed on each day. On both days we saw American Robin, European Starling, House Finch, Red-tailed Hawk, Rock Pigeon, House Sparrow, and White-throated Sparrow. On Saturday we saw Blue Jay and Mourning Dove while on Sunday we saw Yellow-bellied Sapsucker and Downy Woodpecker. (We did see Mourning Dove on Sunday but they were outside the park.)

The high point on both days was watching the soaring flight of the Red-tailed Hawk pair. The hawks made multiple appearances throughout the length of Sunday's walk. A highlight on Saturday was watching courtship behavior between two pigeons followed by spotting several House Finch. The spotting of the hawks, pigeons, and finches happened consecutively and over a short length of the transect. On the other hand, the observational highlights on Sunday were interspersed both temporally and spatially. As well, Downy Woodpecker and Yellow-bellied Sapsucker are charismatic species. While a Downy is considered a common bird, it's not an everyday bird in the park. The sighting of the woodpecker was a capstone to the walk. My favorite sighting occurred roughly mid-walk and was of the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. It was a female black-headed morph. This variation was only recently included in the Sibley Birds East

There were no low points on the counts. As mentioned, even observing everyday birds provided opportunities to learn new facets of a species' life history and to simply be fascinated. Pigeon courtship is quite engaging. Similarly, don't overlook a flock of sparrows. I appreciate the plumage of House Sparrows though you'll find some who don't, and among that group of browns and tans you might find the white throats, black and white crown stripes, and yellow lores of the White-throated Sparrow. Always look closely!

Image: GBBC in WSP, Feb. 17, 2018, courtesy of Heather Wolf

Reflecting on both counts, I became attached to community science, a term I had seen used as a hashtag on Audubon social media posts. I’d like to use the term in lieu of citizen science for a couple of reasons. One, "citizen" feels exclusionary in our current nationalist political environment. Two, although "community" can also have tinges of belonging and not belonging, I think it speaks more clearly to the banding together of individuals to make and record natural observations which when analyzed can have significant impacts on communities of non-human animals, plants, fungi, etc., and people. In addition to the observing birds both visually and aurally, friendships were strengthened and new relationships were begun. I also like to think that the park was perceived as a nature-full place.

I'd love to hear about your GBBC experience, or any other nature finding events.

February 8, 2018

Two Experiential Bird Books for Children

Just in time for this month's Great Backyard Bird Count, Downtown Bookworks provided me with two books perfect for a bird-inclined young child. (These titles would also be great to introduce a young child to birds and bird-watching.) I field tested both PBS Kids Look and Learn Birds by Sarah Parvis and Science with Stuff: Bird-acious by Melissa Stewart with an eight year old.

Science with Stuff: Bird-acious, by Melissa Stewart

Science with Stuff: Bird-Acious has 23 short sections starting with the relationship between dinosaurs and birds (birds are dinosaurs). Subsequent chapters discuss anatomy and behavior including bird size feathers and flight, mating and chick rearing, and beaks and tongues and their role in diet. The subject of the third to last section is waste and one of the wastes featured is an owl pellet which is a fantastic segue to the final two sections of the book.

The hands-on project included in this book immediately captured my son's attention. He actually completed the project before reading the book. An owl pellet is enclosed in the front cover of the book and the final pages of the book discusses the owl to which the pellet belongs, how to dissect a pellet, and how pellets are formed. In addition, there is a key to identify the individual bones and the type of animal in the pellet.

My son first dissected an owl pellet in preK. He's now in second grade. He has dissected additional pellets within this time frame. His specific feedback was that Science with Stuff: Bird-Acious should be packaged with more than one pellet. He also thought several of the images were gross yet fascinating. If you've read this book or if you buy it after reading this review, let me know which images riveted your child!

PBS Kids Look and Learn Birds, by Sarah Parvis

Look and Learn Birds is part of a kit that includes a pair of binoculars, a laminated list of common North American birds, and an activity poster. The page colors and font are lively and appealing to young children. Another stand-out design feature of the book are the photographs which are bright and sharp.

The systematic arrangement of the books 23 short sections takes the reader through the process of how to bird watch while teaching the reader about bird anatomy and behavior. The writing is straightforward and accessible to a young reader. Instructions on how to use the binoculars is placed at the end of the book which I appreciated. I think placing the instructions at the beginning would have been distracting.

My son said he learned many new things about birds and listed three facts: sparrows don't fall from trees while sleeping because of the architecture of their toes, nuthatches walk down tree trunks, and ravens are larger than crows. He enjoyed looking at the photographs. He would like to see more photographs and more factoids in a future edition of the book! He thinks the kit could be improved with better binoculars. He wanted better distance range. These basic binoculars work fine for stationary, eye-level, close-up birds.

I have one peeve about the book. It uses the term "seagulls" in the Shorebirds section. When I mentioned this to my son he told me that one has to use the term sea-gulls otherwise you might think they were bay-gulls. Get it?

Final thoughts

Science with Stuff: Bird-acious and and Look and Learn Birds are packed with great information about bird anatomy and behavior. Our favorite though is Look and Learn Birds for its compelling photographs and easy guide to birding. In the end, they are different books. The former engages you with an exploration of a bird bio-fact (the owl pellet) while the other one provides tools to get you outside looking at birds.

Both books are provided for review purposes by Downtown Bookworks.

February 2, 2018

Washington Square Park Documentary Resources

I am a big fan of libraries and archives. I've engaged with their people and material resources to complete a variety of projects. An example is the online tree map of Washington Square Park. I met with the manager of NYC Parks' Map Archives in Queens to explore their paper map holdings. Another example is an essay I wrote about the Next Epoch Seed Library published by Urban Omnibus. I interviewed the founders Ellie Irons and Anne Percoco and participating in in a couple of their workshops.

Today - and this post will be updated as new resources are discovered - I share for the record, documentary resources (excluding books) pertaining to Washington Square Park, including Minetta Brook. Please indicate omissions in the comments section.

Help Preserve Washington Square petition and poster, 1945 [download here and here via Citizens Housing Planning Council]

Area 3 - Washington Square - Greenwich Village Historic District Designation Report, Volume 1 1969 [download]

Washington Square Park Phase 1A Archaeological Assessment - Joan H. Geismar, PhD., LLC for the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, August 2005 with July 2006 revisions

The Reconstruction of the Washington Square Arch and Adjacent Site Work - Joan H. Geismar, PhD., LLC for the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, April 2004

Washington Square Park - A User Analysis and Place Performance Evaluation - Project for Public Spaces for the Washington Square Park Council, December 1, 2005

Washington Square Park - A Changing Landscape - George Vellonakis [possibly a version his presentation at the "Washington Square Park: Designs Over Time" panel on May 27, 2009 hosted by the Center for Architecture]

Washington Square Park Phase 1 Construction/Archaeological Field Testing Report - Joan H. Geismar, PhD., LLC for the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, March/September 2009

Washington Square Park Phase 2 Construction/Archaeological Field Testing Report - Joan H. Geismar, PhD., LLC for the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, July 2012

Washington Square Park Phase 3 Construction/Archaeological Field Testing Report - Joan H. Geismar, PhD., LLC for the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, November 2013

Washington Square Park State of the Nature Report 2016 - Washington Square Park Eco Projects [narrative report of the wildlife survey conducted by Eco Projects in 2016 published in The Villager on May 18, 2017. A formal report was filed with the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation.]

Water Main Connection at Washington Square Park - Department of Design and Construction First Quarter Newsletter 2017 [download via NYU Community Affairs]

Modeling the Minetta Brook by Steve Duncan, undated